The book deciphers the scientific principles behind the process and production of the world famous superfine silk mats of Pathamadai in Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, India. Weaving of superfine silk mats has been a traditional handicraft involving highly skilled manpower and in-depth understanding on locally available eco friendly raw materials. Keeping this in focus, detailed explanations of the culm anatomy, fibre characteristics, phsyico-mechanical properties, epicuticular waxes have been illustrated. Further, a tissue culture protocol has been evolved for large scale propagation and to understand the genetic stability of tissue cultured plants. The mat sedges, possess lignocellulosic fibres comparable to pulp fibres, and can form an alternate source in paper and pulp industries. The epicuticular waxes can find use in biomimitic applications. The informations of this book has opened new vistas in understanding the biology of under exploited but economically useful sedges in particular this wonder mat sedge ? C. pangorei.