Advances in medicine in the first part of the last century paved way for the control of diseases due to infection and malnutrition. In the last 50 years, interest has turned increasingly to the study of genetics in relation to medicine. It has been realised that many prevalent diseases are partly determined by genetic factors. This research was focused on the conceptual and empirical analysis of the predominant cancerous and non-cancerous lesions of the digestive system in patients attending a Gastrointestinal tertiary care hospital in the city of Coimbatore in South India. Characteristic and random chromosomal alterations associated with several cancerous and non-cancerous lesions of the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) and accessory organs have been identified. Many gastrointestinal diseases are associated with distinct patterns of biochemical shifts. The study portrays the pattern of haemato-biochemical alterations in diseases of the digestive system. The cytogenetic findings may provide important clues and help foresee the potential malignancy of a benign lesion.