Tobacco increases the risk of systemic diseases, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and it has adverse effects on pregnancy, such as infertility, coagulation problems, obstetric accidents, praevia placenta and intrauterine growth retardation. A relationship between postnatal exposure to tobacco and childhood cancer, especially leukaemia and lymphomas, has also been suggested. The presence of tobacco-specific metabolites has been described in fetal blood, cell-free amniotic fluid and in newborns from smoking women, suggesting a possible genotoxic effect. In this study we assess the possible genotoxic effect of maternal smoking on amniotic fluid cells, based on the presence of an increased chromosomal instability. We also analyze whether or not any chromosomal regions are especially affected by exposure to tobacco in the foetus. This book is especially useful for professionals in biomedicine, geneticist''s health care professionals and for those working with the following patient types: preconception, prenatal, adolescent and smoking women. It provides practical information to know the impact of tobacco on the offspring.