Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with the study of the structure and function of the cell, especially the chromosomes. It includes routine analysis of G-Banded chromosomes, other cytogenetic banding techniques, as well as molecular cytogenetics such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The world has witnessed extraordinary advances in science over the last few decades. Biotechnology one such area of growth is a term covering a broad range of scientific activities used in many sectors, such as food, health and agriculture. It involves the use of living organisms or parts of living organisms to provide new methods of production and the making of new products. Cytogenetics is also defined as the study of chromosomes and how changes in their structure and number can relate to disease. Cytogenetic tests are often used in the diagnosis of genetic diseases and in prenatal diagnosis. The two major techniques used in cytogenetics are karyotyping and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).