Without a ?pharmaceutical magic bullet' condom use remains the only way to prevent HIV infection among sexually active individuals, many of whom are in their youthful ages. However, improved knowledge about, and access to condoms have not translated so much into condom use for many South African youth. Studies have shown that high self-efficacy for condom use is strongly related to consistent condom use, however little is known about the factors that influence condom use self-efficacy and how they differ by gender. More so few data on condom use self-efficacy and sexual negotiation exist among sub-Saharan African youth, yet this population is most vulnerable to HIV infection. This monograph examines the influence of dating violence and selected socio-demographic factors on condom use self-efficacy among adolescents in South Africa.