Crude oil constitutes of variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that consist of fused aromatic rings, which are known pollutants and potential health hazards. PAHs are also found in processed fossil fuels, tar and various edible oil. The study highlights the isolation, identification and the screening of efficient PAHs degradation under optimal conditions of cultivation. Further the efforts have been made to study the involvement of genetic and biochemical machinery in biodegradation of PAHs and to develop a bioprocess technology through use of mutagenic and immobilization techniques. In such a biodiverse environment, there is further need to explore possibilities of newer, more efficient and potential strains with degradative pathways leading from toxic substrates to eco friendly, safe and nontoxic products.