This book discusses the interplay between decentralisation and national integration in Indonesia, particularly in Riau, during the early stage of reform period. After the fall of Soeharto''s New Order regime in 1998, Riau with its rich natural resources was one of the prominent province calling for decentralisation (regional autonomy), or otherwise seeking independence by separating from the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. Three agendas i.e. political, economy, and social- cultural reforms were raised by local university students and community elites under the Riau Independence Movement (Gerakan Riau Merdeka). To placate this demand, the Indonesian Government under President B.J. Habibie established Laws No. 22/1999 and No. 25/1999 as the foundations of decentralisation nationwide. How Riau political upheaval at the Post-New Order period threatened Indonesia''s integration and to what extent the implementation of decentralisation prevented national disintegration are well documented and examined in this book.