The publication of this book is driven by a desire to share some reflections on experiences at the policy level and in practice, evidenced by studies conducted in some rural communities and schools. As part of wider social and democratic governance reforms, the Ghana Government initiated a process to decentralise education management in1987 and prescribed active community participation in schools and the establishment of SMCs. In the implementation process, attention has been focused on Government’s understanding of how communities and schools should assume responsibility for increased participation in schools. This book highlights the findings of an exploration of different meanings the policy of decentralization has for the various stakeholders, by examining the multiple understandings of how school-community relations work; and the practices, challenges, and environments that influence such relationships. It further emphasizes the need to reflect local realities, including, historical, cultural and socio-economic diversity in policy and gives useful insights into how communities understand their roles and the challenges they face in trying to engage more actively with schools.