The economic development of a country and the health status of its society are intertwined. For a developing country like Ethiopia, that has been striving to eradicate poverty and bring about improvement in the society''s welfare, understanding factors that affect the health status of the society is imperative. There are very few empirical studies that address this topic in the case of Ethiopia. This book therefore, provides information on the socioeconomic determinants of demand for health and health care in Ethiopia based on the theoretical foundations of the Grossman''s health demand model using a relatively large data set from the Welfare Monitoring Survey (2005). Self-reported incidence of illness and number of physician visits are used to measure demand for health and health care, respectively. Self-reported incidence of illness is modeled with Probit model while the number of physician visits is modeled with Zero- inflated Poisson model. The analysis should be useful for any scholar interested in health and development related issues and it should come in handy for policy makers who can devise strategies that could improve the society''s heath performance.