The discussion on democratization in Muslim countries has been revived. It has been argued that the repression and exclusion of Islamic movements from the political process breeds radicalism, while political engagement and inclusion, however, encourages moderation. The fact that only few Muslim states have been affected by the recent wave of democratization has raised many questions concerning the impact of Islam and Islamic activism on democracy. Does Islam or Islamic activism hinder democratization and strengthen authoritarianism in the Muslim countries? Can democratization progress in Muslim countries without the inclusion of the major Islamic forces? This book tackles these questions by assessing the possibility of the correlation between Islam and democracy and the impact of Islamic political activism on democratization in Muslim countries. Focussing on Indonesia, the most populous Muslim country in the world, and Egypt, the most populous Muslim country in the Arabic-speaking world, this book unfolds important factors and conditions that have been responsible for the success or failure of democratization in these two countries.