The trend for the future of Root Canal Therapy is leaning towards dental pulp tissue regeneration using tissue engineering principles, stem cells, growth factors and scaffolds. Ideally, Root Canal Therapy would involve the removal of diseased pulp tissue and its permanent replacement with healthy pulp to revitalize teeth. Traditionally, during a Root Canal Therapy, the diseased pulp has been removed and replaced by a biocompatible synthetic material. This book presents the concepts and foundations of this new trend. It also presents the results of an in vitro tissue constructs study and the results of pre-clinical trials of dental pulp tissue regeneration in teeth of non-human primates. This study tested the fundamental principles of dental pulp tissue regeneration, as it is now envisioned, using stem cells, growth factors and scaffolds. The aim is to develop a reliable and reproducible protocol that will always give the same result, the revitalization of teeth by the regeneration of dental pulp tissue.