The word dermatoglyphics is derived from two Greek words (derma, skin and glyphe, carve) and refers to the friction ridge formations which appear on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Dermal ridge configurations begin to develop about the 13th week of gestation. Dermatoglyphic traits are formed under genetic control but may be affected by environmental factors. The genetic basis of dental caries has been acknowledged since long. Recently, researchers have tried to draw the attention to the culprit genes without undermining the overwhelming environmental influences. These methods are difficult and financially farfetched in the developing countries for their public health program. The developing nations, with a large section of relatively underprivileged and less aware “middle class”, have a large number of children with rotten teeth with early Childhood Caries which could have been easily prevented. The dermatoglyphics facilitates easier and more economical identification of the high risk groups of Early Childhood Caries, for its timely and comprehensive prevention especially in the developing countries having enormous population and relatively less health budgets.