The present study deals with the floristic analysis, vegetation composition and its relation to environmental variables in the Sallum area along the Mediterranean coastal land of Egypt. It is included in the semi-desert vegetation zone with an attenuated desert climate. The recorded taxa were classified according to the life-form spectrum and chorological affinities in the study area. Stratified random sampling method was employed. Five main geomorphologic units can be distinguished in the study area from the coast in the north to the fringes of the Diffa plateau in the south. A total of 219 species (116 annuals and 103 perennials), belonging to 154 genera and 47 families were recorded. Therophytes and chamaephytes were the most frequent, denoting a typical desert life-form spectrum. Classification of the vegetation was analysed using TWINSPAN technique resulted in the recognition of five vegetation groups in Sallum area. DCA and CCA indicated that clay, moisture content , PH, Ec, K, Mg, and altitude were the most environmental factors affecting the distribution of the plant community in Sallum area.