The monograph is devoted to the problems of the optimization of networks of seismic and acoustic observations on the surface of the Earth, and on cylindrical objects. The optimization problem is considered in the framework of non-statistical approach, based on the criterion of C-optimality introduced by the author. Criterion C-optimality allows us to solve linear problems of experimental design, regardless of the nature of the errors in the original data and the design matrix, random or systematic. In addition to the solutions of the optimal planning of observational networks in explicit form, the monograph examined algorithms for numerical solution of the definitions of discrete optimal design, which is the seismic and acoustic monitoring network. The monograph is intended for specialists in the field of applied and theoretical seismology, and will be useful for undergraduate and graduate students in related disciplines.