A lot of agricultural crops are being threatened by a wide variety of biotic stresses by lowering of vegetable and fruit quality leading to wipe out entire harvests. About 42% of the world’s total agricultural crop is destroyed yearly by diseases and pests. The per capita availability of land has also been shrinking due to population increase. There is also spread of urbanization and the growing demand for more land. We are left with a situation where we have to produce more from the limited land available to ensure food security. However, crop losses can be minimized and specific treatments can be tailored to combat specific pathogens if plant diseases are correctly diagnosed and identified early. These need-based treatments also translate to economic and environmental gains. Diagnostic kits are an investment: they may be expensive, but the costs can be offset by gains, such as reduced crop losses and more environment-friendly crop-management practices. The molecular plant pathologist, who understands and keeps abreast of modern concepts about the nature of plant disease and the ways in which they can be controlled will be a vital resource for the agricultural and horticultural.