This publication presents the findings of determinants of agricultural productivity and household food security in Kuyu District, Ethiopia. It is hoped to fill a critical literature gap in food security studies at household level. The study reveals that the level of agricultural output at national level may not get to the bottom of the problems of food insecurity at household level in the country. Despite the government's efforts to end poverty over the last few years, numerous rural households have been found to be still suffering from chronic food insecurity in the district. The causes of the existing low agricultural productivity and the resultant food insecurity in rural Ethiopia in general and the study area in particular have been found to be wide-ranging and interlocked, requiring an earnest integrated approach to fundamentally put an end to the prevailing predicaments in agricultural sector in Ethiopia.