Developing effective therapeutic strategies for the injured central nervous system to treat such conditions as spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury and stroke, is one of the major challenges in current neuroscience and clinical neurology research. Increasing evidence suggests that after trauma, central neurons acquire certain developmental-like characteristics. Thus, the vast amount of data available on neuronal development could be utilized in trauma research as well. However, the data on the developmental-like properties of mature injured neurons has not been extensively summarized. This book provides a comprehensive review on the topic with the special focus on neurotrophin signalling, post-traumatic chloride homeostasis and the thyroid hormones. The review is followed by the presentation of the novel data on the interconnection of the reviewed areas and the impact of this interplay on neuronal survival. Possible therapeutic applications of the old and new findings are discussed. The book will be interesting for both basic researches and clinicians working in the dynamic field of the central nervous system trauma.