Membrane separation processes are growing rapidly and have been attracted remarkable attention in academic and industrial research. Electro-membrane processes are membrane based separation process in which charged membranes and applied electrical gradients are responsible for the separation of ionic species present in fermentation broths. Intensified research on electro-membrane processes has been carried out for water desalination and downstream processes for biomolecules separation and recovery. Thus, development of cost effective membranes by eco-friendly route is highly required for researchers working in electro-membrane separation processes field. This book provides in details of electro-membrane processes for in situ ion substitution separation and water splitting technology based on electrodialysis and electro-electrodialysis principle.