The last decade has seen significant developments in our knowledge of dietary fibre and its role in preservation of health and disease risk reduction. The concept has broadened, and the quest for a universally recognised definition of dietary fibre continues. In defining fibre, the emphasis has shifted from analytical methodology to physiological impact. Although the underlying science remains complex, consumers now seem to be more aware of the fibre concept. Nevertheless, it has become clear that fibre consumption in most developed nations is suboptimal and strategies to encourage consumers to increase their fibre intake have achieved prominence. In this book, the botanical origin and chemical structure of dietary fibre are outlined. Based on a general overview of the physicochemical properties of fibre, the various actions of dietary fibre are discussed with particular reference to the role of fibre in human disease.