Differential proteomics analysis became more important and reliable with the development of new advances both in the labeled (like DIGE, ICAT, iTRAQ, ICPL) as well as label-free methods used in the field of differential proteomics. Validation of differential proteomics results have been done by ELISA, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and real time qPCR. Differential proteomics are successfully used in the diverse studies like biomarker discovery, agriculture, pathogenesis, drug resistance and organism adaptation at diverse environmental stress. Every proteomic methods have its own limitation but they are complementary to each other, therefore uses of multiple methods together have advantage over single method. In the present Book, we have tried to explain the development of different differential proteomics methods and their diverse significance.