Broadcasting of fertilizer leads to the loss of 30 – 40% of nutrients though surface runoff. Band placement of fertilizer in root zone increases the nutrient uptake by plants thereby increasing fertilizer use efficiency. The Subsoiler-cum-Differential Rate Fertilizer Applicator designed in this research work, applies fertilizer in differential manner in vertical root profile of crop. Performing two operations in one pass it also saves energy. This book presents details description of the design procedure of the equipment and the response of sugarcane crop to differential rate fertilizer application. Students of Agricultural Engineering, researchers and industries will get the idea of differential rate fertilizer application in vertical root profile of crop and design the needed equipment and further modify it. It can be an excellent guidance for the farmers growing row crops and they can save fertilizer to a great extent.