Recently, short wordlength (single-bit and ternary) processing has become a very promising technique and has already made a huge impact on industry as it can implement many important DSP tasks with significant efficiency. The increased effective speed and the economics of VLSI chip implementation expected for the new short wordlength techniques should translate into massive cost savings and increased flexibility for many electronic systems. Despite the large body of work that has been done so far, there are many ill-understood and unresolved issues in single-bit systems such as stability and lack of adaptive filtering. These issues stalled the full adoption of single-bit techniques in industry. In this book, the focus has been made upon four axes, namely,designing new single-bit DSP applications,approaches for stability analysis, tackling the unresolved problem of single-bit and short-word length adaptive filtering and related FPGA implementation issues. This work should help students, researchers, engineers and scientists working in digital signal processing, communications, and related topics and inspire further research in these fields.