Whilst education is widely recognized and appraised as a basic human right, the provision of emergency education represents a relatively unknown and potentially problematic policy field. The prevalent lack of education in these conflict zones and refugee settlements runs the risk of endangering the effectiveness of global education initiatives and the 2015 Millennium Development Goals. Equal access to education has therefore become a decisive policy imperative for the humanitarian sector. Education however also needs to impact substantive learning outcomes. Quality indicators of education should increasingly stress equitable learning opportunities so pivotal for an improved provision during displacement. This publication uses fieldwork findings from the Lukole refugee camp in Tanzania to elaborate on the dynamics of refugee education provision. It aims to show that this type of education is contingent on the propositions and conceptions of a wider socio-political framework. Educational decision-makers must develop a more comprehensive outlook to better grasp the mechanisms inherent in the provision of quality refugee education.