Rural households generally practice a diversified livelihood strategy, whereby in addition to their involvement in agricultural production most engage in non-farm income earning activities. As a consequence, rural producers may diversify by changing the composition of what they produce, for example by increasing the number of crops or changing to crop and livestock production. An understanding of these strategies is particularly important, especially the analysis of households’ diversification of livelihood strategies (LS) and their well-being. This book essentially gives an in-depth analysis of farm households’ diversification of their LS. Diversification of these LS is measured by considering both a households engagement in farm and non-farm activities and the number of LS adopted. In addition, the book also analyzes crop diversification in the agricultural sub-sector on the basis of food (in particular maize). Maize production is given this weight due to the fact that the crop is the single most important food staple in sub-Saharan Africa.