Bangladesh is a country furnished with various indigenous livestock genetic resources where native chicken (about 140 million) are more popular for their distinct traits in the present era of commercial chicken production. The quest of this research work was to find out various reasons which affect the performance of indigenous chicken including management system as well. So a benchmark survey conducted in some selected rural areas of Bangladesh (total 430 households) using a pre-tested survey questionnaire. Based on all the results, it identified that production performance of native chicken varied according to location, genotype, age, and plumage color. Moreover, simple phenotypic screening of village chicken with little feed supplementation, vaccination and pursuing proper marketing facilities could enhance their performance under free range condition (in-situ). In addition, this book would inspire the people of different countries to conserve their respective native chicken from the clutch of extinct.