This book is an outcome of research carried out for 4 years at Department of Zoology, University of Pune, India. In this study, we recorded the regional butterflies' faunistics and also their nectar plants and their biodiversity in spatial and temporal dimensions in Semnan and Mazandaran Provinces, Iran, with reference to climes. The book encompasses 5 chapters. Chapter-I includes General Information about butterflies. Chapter-II, deals with the Taxonomy of Butterflies. Chapter-III, includes Biodiversity of Butterflies, a yearlong quantitative survey of butterfly biodiversity from 20 sampling sites; in which ?-Diversity in both spatial and temporal dimensions, and ?-Diversity of the present butterflies were investigated. Chapter- IV, is highlighting the nectar plants of butterflies in which flower visiting was not quantified, but noted for each plant visited by butterflies in the study plots. Chapter V, deals with Report of a Hybrid. This book can be foundation for future endeavors to build upon these results for development of a sound program of butterfly’s nectar plants and monitoring biodiversity.