Over the last decade, increased global concern about climate change, demand upsurge for energy and augmented fossil fuel price, convey need for renewable and sustaninable alternative energy sources. Biodiesel particularly, from Jatropha curcas attracts interest of many nations, investors and researchers. However, practical large scale production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas is limited due to information gaps with regard to superior seed source, genetic potential of the existing Jatropha curcas germplasm, productivity per unit area, oil quality and optimum requirement of edaphic and climatic factors. Hence, this book provides basic information for researchers and investors on genetic diversity, oil quality and productivity of Jatropha curcas germplasm that are growing in Ethiopia as well as those introduced from Kenya and Tanzania. Moreover, the book consist bio-physical factors that affect productivity of Jatropha curcas plantation and the optimum requirement of these factors under different yield scenarios. It also consist target agronomic traits to be improved for better yield through breeding program.