To achieve a fluid, elegant performance the dancer must have control over every joint in the body, requiring a balance between strength and flexibility. For optimal performance dancers must be expert in the aesthetic and technical side of the art, psychologically prepared to handle the stress of critical situations and free from injury. They must also be physically fit. Unlike sport, however, fitness training has not been generally considered necessary for a successful dance career. This partly reflects an unfounded fear that physical work outside the studio would diminish dancers‘ aesthetic appearances, which are nevertheless difficult to quantify. The same is also true for dance performance. All these may be affected by factors including flexibility, strength and control, fatigue, pain, stress, injury or preparation. This book aims to answer some questions related to contemporary dance and dancers as well as providing normative data that can be used in future studies.