This study explores the relationship between Medical Brain Drain (MBD) and the production of health workers, the educational choices and the health status of the population in sending countries. Using data collected by the World Bank, I find no evidence that higher emigration of physicians generates higher rates of enrolment to medical schools. With regard to the health outcomes instead there seems to be no significant effect of physicians'' availability and emigration on mortality rates and basic health service coverage rates. On the other hand MBD seems to boost the incidence of deaths due to HIV/AIDS. A comparative case study of the experience of Botswana and Zimbabwe shows that what is more affected by MBD is the “quality” of health services provided rather than their “quantity”, thus the administration of basic care is only marginally affected while that of more complex treatments dramatically falls as a consequence of MBD. These findings therefore raise serious concern about the emigration of doctors from developing countries and its effects on human capital accumulation both from the point of view of education and from that of health.