This research documents the decline of the forests of the Petra Region of Jordan, as represented at Sadd al-Ahmar, 10.7ha. study site at the northern edge of the Petra Archaeological Park. Biogeographical and anthropological methods were employed to explore the history of the forests. Archaeology and historical narratives provided a portrait of the study area from prehistory to the early 20th century. Aerial surveys from 1924 and 2002 were analyzed to quantify changes in forest cover. Mapping and survey of indicator species measured short-term change between 2003 and 2011. Interviews, field observation and participant observation in the tourist industry provided a socio-cultural context for quantitative analysis and for recommendations for remediation of pressures on the remaining forest. The research documents a 58% decline in tree cover between 1924-2002, a decline of 3.58% between 2003-2006 and 4.37% from 2006-2011. The conclusions question concepts such as "landscape integrity" and ?human intervention? in landscapes and the usefulness of noninterventionist ideology for the conservation of threatened ecosystems.