This books aims to explore the meaning of ? (xiao): an important Chinese traditional concept originated from Confucian morality. By investigating three different discourses across time and languages, based on the authentic language data drawn from two ancient Confucian texts, the Chinese Internet Corpus and the Bank of English, the meaning of ?(xiao) as a social phenomenon in different time and languages is extracted. This book also focuses on the translation study of ?(xiao). From the perspective of corpus linguistics, through different meanings and ideologies revealed from different translations, I hope to discover, to what extent, translators'' translation purposes and strategies influence the translation effect. Based on the research from the perspective of corpus linguistics, I find ?(xiao) in ancient Chinese refers to a complicated relationship in male-dominated feudal society, while ?(xiao) in modern Chinese has narrowed its range of meaning and no gender bias is in connection with ?(xiao). Furthermore, all the translations of ?(xiao) had lost its sense of meaning addressing relationship to superiors.