This book investigates rural-urban infant mortality disparities using data from the Malawi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS)of 2006. The Book probes two issues regarding infant mortality. First, we look at factors that determine infant mortality. We find that there are rural-urban differences in the factors that determine infant mortality in Malawi. Second, to get a deeper understanding of this rural-urban mortality difference, the study uses the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique for the Probit model. The decomposition is done at both the aggregated and disaggregated levels. The aggregated decomposition allows us to isolate the infant mortality difference into a part attributable to differences in characteristics and a part which is due to differences in coefficients. The detailed (disaggregated) decomposition enables us to pinpoint the major factors behind the infant mortality gap. The Book is targeted at institutions that have targeted programs aimed at reducing the rural-urban infant mortality differential in Malawi.