The Wejerat and Afar communities have long socio- economic interaction and deep rooted joint institution. Pre-1991,they used to live peacefully. Above all resource-oriented conflicts were properly resolved via the local joint institution,gereb.But, post-1991, their relations have been diminishing while the violent conflict inevitably persisting. This is a puzzle, why their relations are on and off in a ‘democratic era'' while they were living peacefully in an ‘undemocratic era''. Competition over natural resources, availability of illegal Small Arms and Light Weapons, weak law enforcement and justice system, poor governance, and the decline of local traditional institutions are found to be the underlying causes of the conflict.The government intervention is too little and usually too late and focuses on treating symptoms of the problem rather than addressing the root causes. The old pasture and water-oriented combating have shown a paradigm shift with the intention of territorial expansion. These aggravate the scenario and hinder to bring sustainable peace in the area.Hence, the conflict attains its catastrophe stage at one time,and goes down again for the time being to latent stage.