The present study assessed the prevalence of and risk factors for Early Childhood Caries in children 3 to 5 years old. The target population included 3 to 5 year old and their mothers from the 14 zones of Bhopal city. Each mother was first given the structured questionnaire, and then the child’s clinical dental examination was carried out. The prevalence of early childhood caries in preschool children aged three to five years in Bhopal was 43.2%, with a mean dmft of 3.02. Caries prevalence, however, showed statistically significant association and a negative correlation with socioeconomic status, with lower socioeconomic status children showing higher caries.