The first three years of life are the most critical years for the overall development of a child. Infants and toddlers require a variety of learning experiences in a quality child care environment to thrive in the years ahead. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a literacy-focused curriculum on the cognitive and language development of children in Early Head Start (EHS). A secondary goal was to determine the effects of family and teacher characteristics on children’s cognitive and language skills development. Additionally, this study sought to determine the impact of a literacy-focused curriculum on Early Head Start teachers’ classroom practices. A single-group repeated-measures design along with structured interviews were used to test the hypotheses in this study. Developmental outcomes for children were directly assessed using the Early Learning Accomplishment Profile (E-LAP). Results of this study revealed that participation in a literacy focused curriculum produced positive results for EHS students. The present study also identified several maternal and teacher characteristics that predicted developmental outcomes for infants and toddlers.