The world is experiencing dramatic change in technological advancement. These changes widen our understating about natural resources. Understanding of our current advancement in technology and economic development requires wide knowledge on Earth as well as biotic resources. This book examines the main components of the Earth and biotic resources with special reference to geological, geomorphologic, mineral, energy and biotic resources. It examines the nature, uses, occurrence and distribution of the resources on the globe. Most examples are drawn in East Africa particularly in Tanzania. The book is primarily intended to serve as a text book for undergraduate student who are taking geography and environmental studies. Also, it is hoped that the book shall provide the guidelines for all interested on natural resources; secondary school students, college and university students, teachers and lecturers, businessmen, civil servants, managers and political readers.