The neural tube defects observed during the present investigation revealed a spectrum of congenital abnormalities such as spina bifida, meningocele, meningomyelocele, lipomeningocele and encephalocele with variable clinical and morphological presentations. The epidemiological factors like maternal age, abortion (induced or spontaneous), parity, nutrition, occupation, habitation, smoking/alcoholic, medication and sex of the proband have been analyzed. Biochemically, the variations in the blood serum protein fractions of proband and their mothers were investigated. Variations in the concentrations of trace elements viz. Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Se in blood, cell mass and serum of both mother and proband were estimated. The data collected on different epidemiological and biochemical factors have been statistically analyzed. The information generated in this study has been discussed with special emphasis on diagnostics and screening of neural tube defects.