One of the main objectives of any economic policy (the regional policy is one part of it) is to achieve or increase competitiveness of the country. This goal can also be achieved by the progressive development of centers (poles, engines), which are mainly represented by the regions. Just increasing of the competitiveness is not enough. Objectives defined in this way should be extended to one important feature – sustainability. Only sustainability – continuously existing – of competitiveness can guarantee the desired economic growth, development and citizens'' quality of life in each country, and also in the whole European Union. This monograph Economic Development of Regions in Context of Sustainability has set these goals: analyses and characteristics of regions, economic development and forms of development support - all of them in the context of sustainability. An obvious objective of regional development, which was enshrine in all chapters, is to maximize competitiveness using available production factors, resources and other potential of regions.