Rice straw is an alternative source for the production of cellulose pulp and some other useful materials such as xanthated cellulose. The conditions of preparation (pulping, bleaching and xanthation) and factors affecting the main properties of the produced cellulose pulp and xanthated cellulose (the effect of alkali concentration, time of pulping and weight / volume ratio when boiling) are intended. The resulting intermediate products as well as the final products, were characterized and compared at each experimental step. The IR absorption spectral analysis were undertaken according to different methods (Saad et. al., base line technique, back ground and Pirlot methods) Agricultural wastes (cellulosic) treatment and characterization using different methods and analyzing the figures of scanning with electron microscope.