Economic liberalisation implied a shift away from the mining policy model prevalent during the 1950- 1980 period in several countries. A new policy and law approach were developed to govern the activities of the extractive sector. However, it was argued that reforms of policy and regulatory frameworks had often been introduced without the safeguards necessary to achieve long-term development objectives of developing countries. The new pro-development perspective of international policies during recent years has strongly influenced the evolution of mining policies and related laws. Presently, mining sector is keenly scrutinised for the way that it contributes to achieve MDGs and reduce poverty in natural resource-rich countries. This book explores the impact of economic liberalisation on mining policy as well as the efforts made by Government and the mining industry to manage the development demands. Peru is used as a case study, including the local impact of the Antamina mine in the Ancash region. The book is addressed to policy- makers, the business sector, civil society institutions and professionals dealing with extractive industries and development.