This book addresses two central research issues: 1) what is economic literacy; 2) what is the efficiency of economic programs applied to children, and, doing so, if children have capacity and ability to understand and learn about economic matters. Doing so, it explores which factors may affect children’s economic literacy. This study contributes to an ongoing discussion in the literature, ascertaining children’s interest and capacity to understand economics. The current work was conducted under the research project “Economicando” (PTDC/EGE-ECO/100923/2008), financed by FEDER funds through the Programa Operacional Fatores de Competitividade - COMPETE and by national funds through the FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia. The book derives from a Master Thesis. The book starts by discussing the importance of economic literacy in general, and for children in particular. It then discusses at which point children are able to learn economics within economic programs. It then suggests a methodology to test the efficiency of economic programs among children. The book reports results from an empirical study applied in Portugal.