This book provides the review of economic and social disparities within the chosen EU Member States. This book defines the indicators indispensable to measure differences and furthermore is describing the EU Cohesion Policy - the main instrument aiming at the balance between MS. Taking the look on the Cohesion and Structural Funds - the main tools for implementation of the policy and after that, describing the institutional framework - on European and national level - to provide an overview about how the funds are managed and implemented. The second part of the book, the Results, is following four chosen countries and evaluation of of indicators in social and economic field. Starting with Germany and Sweden - as the old MS and considered to be on a high level of development and finishing with Estonia and Slovakia - MS only since 2004, but catching-up quickly. In each of these countries amount and allocation of resources of the Cohesion Policy is noted as well as the main priorities for the 2007-2013 implementation period. In the final part, mutual comparison of mentioned countries is further inspected.