Ricebean (Vigna umbellata) belongs to the group of underutilized plant species which survive because they are still useful to local people and occupying special niches in production systems because of their adaptability to low input and marginal lands. They are continue to be grown and managed particularly in rural areas of developing economies, and are thus contributing to the livelihood of the poor. They are locally plentiful but globally rare, scientific information and knowledge about them is little, and their current use is limited related to their economic potential. Landraces and their wild relatives are the key element of agricultural biodiversity and constitute a key resource maintained and used by farmers in different production environments. Maintenance, utilization and management of this diversity in the field are vital for sustainable agriculture. Commercialization and diversification of ricebean products and linking these products to the market not only gives an economic return to farming communities but also contribute to conserve biodiversity for future. This book would be useful to all those interested in the field of agricultural biodiversity.