Agricultural sector is the base of Indian economy.Indian economy has to depend upon the development of agriculture for their economic development in order to meet the demand for food grains and raw materials of aggro-based industries.Indian farmers gets their maximum income from cash crop cultivation especially sugarcane,cotton,soybean and groundnut crops. Therefore, the present study has tried to understand the cost and income structure of these selected crops. The book has analyzed how to manage the agriculture costs to get higher and higher profitability from cash crops. All the results in the study are based on field survey analysis in Indian agriculture. Targets: The book is useful for the Indian farmers as well as farmers in aggro-based countries for cost-benefit analysis of cash crop cultivation.Resource-use efficiency,cost analysis,returns to scale,inputs cost etc.study helps to farmers and policy makers of agriculture sector. The study is also useful in the formulation of suitable policies of the villages in particular district and region in the country.