The biggest challenge as being faced by the India''s policy makers is the persisting high incidence of poverty.The situation is likely to worsen because of the growing pressure of population on land and limited scope for increasing additional production through subsistence farming. If the productivity level is increased up to potential level the national income of India would be more than double. To plan the systematic development on household basis for the total upliftment of the farming community especially small farmers the farming system based research studies are emphasized. To search alternative, efficient and viable farming system or to improve upon the existing, diagnosis is essential. An efficient farming system accelerates the growth of agri-business, employment and ensures a fair standard of living to the farm and non farm households. This work has been undertaken under the heads:that is identification, socio-economic characterization, cost and return, factors affecting and constraints to higher income in farming systems. The book would be useful to professionals of farming systems research,policy makers and any one interested.