The goal of rehabilitation at many mine sites is to re-establish a self sustaining ecosystem which is resilient to disturbance and requires minimal long-term management input. However, our understanding about long-term ecosystem development on rehabilitated sites following mining is limited, and how these ''new'' ecosystems respond to subsequent disturbances such as fire, even more so. The book aimed to address this knowledge gap through a comprehensive investigation of rehabilitated sand mine located on the central coast of New South Wales, Australia, and focussed on the effect of multiple disturbance (re-mining and fire). The book also considered the development of success criteria and indicators to establish whether or not rehabilitated mine sites were progressing toward a self sustaining ecosystem. The book should help shed some light on long-term ecosystem development after mining, and should be useful to professionals in mining-environment sectors, government agencies dealing with mine site, restoration ecologists, graduate students or anyone else who has interest in sustainable outcome of mining activities.