Cancer of esophagus was first recorded in China over 2000 years ago using the name “Ye Ge”, which means “hard of swallowing with blockage of the gullet and vomiting after eating” or “Dysphagia and Belching”. It is also termed “Yi Guan” in many Traditional Chinese Medicine textbooks and is commonly seen in the elderly and rarely develops in young people. Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. It ranks among 10 most frequently occurring cancers in the world. Apparently four lakh new cases of this cancer occur each year. The high incidence rates are found in China, Japan, Africa, and Iran. EC is the second most common cancer in men and fifth most common cause of cancer in females in India. The epidemiological studies have clearly established very high incidence of the EC in India particularly from Kashmir region.