The economic issues facing the higher education industry are becoming more relevant in a contracting national economy. The United States is underperforming in higher education and the global competitiveness and the interdependent nature of the world demand that the nation make postsecondary education more accessible to greater numbers of people than ever before. The needs of our diverse population call for an examination of the state policy interventions to increase college enrollment among low-income and minorities who are underrepresented in higher education. Diminishing budgets for postsecondary education dictate the need for greater efficiency in the use of declining resources. States need to determine the most effective and efficient policies to allocate the limited funds and revenues available to them, and provide increased access to higher education for a larger portion of the population to contribute to new innovations, attract new businesses, and compete for higher paying jobs.