This book on Education and Development in Africa: The Case of Tigray, Ethiopia discusses the role of education in the development process of Africa in general and the role of Females' Education in the Fertility Reduction process in particular.In the study 2290 respondents are randomly selected and interviewed out of which 1373(60%) are females. This study revealed that females' education contributes to avoid early marriage of females, decreases family dissolution, increases ages at first sexual intercourse, first marriage and first birth. The awareness about HIV/AIDS of the females also increases with their literacy status and educational levels. It is discovered that as the educational level of the females increases, their decision making at home and in the community increases. Hence, females' education is found to be the key variable in the development process in general and fertility reduction in particular. This study recommends that any governmental and non- governmental organization that contributes for the African development have to invest in the enhancement of the participation of females in the educational system.