This book based on empirical research provides comprehensive information on genetic analysis of blackgram under two cropping systems. In fact one of the areas in research on increasing plant productivity in developing countries is the preservation of inherent stability of traditional farming systems. Such farming systems are characterized by small holdings and growing of different crops under mixed and intercropping systems in variance to monocropping employed in large farms in developed countries. This shift in priorities is under standable because a substantial contribution of farm output in developing countries comes from small farms. Without radical alterations, there are remote chances of improving traditional farming systems.One such instance is the intercropping of maize with blackgram as a secondary crop in the mountainous tracts of North-Western India. It has been established by our study that significant progenies x cropping system interaction exists for grain yield and its component traits in blackgram-maize cropping systems. It may help to develop suitable breeding and selection criteria to seek genetic improvement of blackgram where it is intercropped with maize.